kidney transplant is an operation in which a person with kidney failure
receives a new kidney. The donor should have two healthy kidneys and the
recipient's both kidneys should have failure. As you know each person can live
with one healthy kidney.
kidney transplant both donor and recipient undergo various tests. The recipient
should be healthy enough to endure the operation and take immunosu ppressant
The patient shouldn’t have any illness or
infection at the time of kidney Transplantation just because after the
operation due to taking immunosuppressant medicine they are in danger of
are two types of kidney donors:
1. A living donor who gives his/her kidney.
It can be someone from family because there is high genetic compatibility
between family members & also relatives.
2. A non-living donor who has died but
his/her kidney is healthy &it is transplanted.
What is dialysis?
Dialysis is a kind of treatment. Where the
kidneys cannot take care of body needs, & the kidneys have failed the
person needs dialysis.
Kidney has the role of filtering &
removing waste from blood, & also adjusting body's water level. Dialysis takes
the role of the kidney & gives the person the chance to have a good &
What is dialysis role?
In peritoneal dialysis, your blood is cleaned inside your body. The doctor will
do Surgery to place a plastic tube called a Catheter into your abdomen to make
an access. During treatment, your abdominal area (called the peritoneal Cavity)
is slowly filled with dialysis through the catheter.
blood stays in the arteries & veins that line your peritoneal cavity. Extra
fluid & waste products are drawn out of your blood & into the dialysate.
Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) is done without machines. You do it
yourself, usually four or five times a day at home or work. The problem is the
infection that is made around catheter.
does a patient need dialysis?
You need dialysis when you develop end stage kidney
failure usually by the time you lose about 85 to 90 percent of your kidney function
& have a GFR of <15, or if you have constant fluid buildup &
Symptoms of too much urea & other wastes in your blood. If the patient is
suffering heart disease, lung disease or such diseases or even has problems in
his sense of taste or Sensation in legs, dialysis is recommended
When your kidneys fail, dialysis keeps your
body in balance by:
- removing waste, Salt & extra water to
prevent them from building up in the body.
- keeping a safe level of certain chemicals
in your blood, such as potassium, sodium & bicarbonate
- helping to control blood pressure
Types of dialysis:
There are two types of dialysis- hemo-dialysis
& peritoneal dialysis.
- In hemo-dialysis an artificial kidney (hemodialyzer)
is used to remove waste & extra Chemicals & fluid from the blood. To
get your blood into the artificial kidney, the doctor needs to make an access
(entrance) into your blood vessels. This is done by minor Surgery to your arm
or leg. Sometimes, an access is made by joining an artery to a vein under your
skin to make a bigger blood vessel Called a fistula. Occasionally, an access is
made by means of narrow plastic tube, called a catheter, which is inserted into
a large vein in your neck.
Usually, each hemodialysis treatment lasts
about 4 hours & is done three times per week.
& urethral stones are a common disease. Historically, large kidney & urethral
stones were removed through open surgery, requiring a large flank incision. In
this method the patients suffered pain for months. Techniques like
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWC) for Stones Smaller 2cm &
percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNC) for stones larger than 2cm with minimized
incision size, pain, blood loss, blood transfusions have higher success rate
for clearing all stones for decades.